Database management

Benchmarking is often hampered by a lack of available data and information.  There is a need to build capacities to collate, integrate and analyze information for effective planning & decision making.  Water districts need to come up with a set of technical, financial, social and environmental indicators as bases for performance improvement. The training on “Introduction to Database Management for Performance Benchmarking of Water Districts” was held in January 2009 at Visayas State University in Baybay, Leyte (Philippines).  The objectives of the training: Evolve a set of performance benchmarks using technical, financial, social & environmental indicators; Strengthen the capability of performance benchmarking units or focal persons of water districts on database establishment; Enhance the capabilities of managers and workers in water districts to establish a database on performance benchmarking; Strengthen PUPs within & among water districts and other stakeholders through data sharing.  The expected outcomes were:  Consensus on key performance indicators; Performance benchmarking units or focal persons in WDs; Public-public partnerships (PUPs) within & among WDs and other water stakeholders. Participants were requested to bring with them a set of sample indicators from their respective WDs to use for hands-on exercises.
Basic Principles in Dealing with Data.  DR. LILIBETH MIRALLES of Visayas State University reviewed the concept of data and their importance, levels of measurement and measurement methodologies, data transformation, scoring techniques, index construction, and gain insights in data coding and representation. Data are information, facts, evidences, (texts, photographs, videos, sound recordings) stored in any media (computers, storage devices, prints outs, audio tapes, video tapes etc). Raw data is transformed into values that are usable in analysis. Complete, accurate, timely and relevant data is important to make informed decisions. To help reduce error in gathering data, there should be:  Pilot testing of measurement instrument; Training the data gatherers; Double checking the data; and Triangulating across multiple measures. Examples used to illustrate concepts were related to water district operations.  For instance, ‘data representation’ is exemplified  by existing sanitation facilities and practices of watershed occupants as it relates to the cost of water treatment;  the ‘unit of analysis used could be the ‘household-occupant’ and data needed would be: whether a household has a toilet, type of toilet (Direct/flush,  Open/overhang, VIP latrine),  type of septic tank (Unlined/earth,  With side lining only/bottomless,  Sealed/lined septic tank), sewage disposal, sanitation practices, etc.  A “uni-dimensional construct” is illustrated by attitudes towards the practice of solid waste segregation or self-esteem of an employee.
Basic Principles in Data Collection and Instrumentation.   DR. BUENVENTURA DARGANTES of Visayas State University reviewed the basic principles in data collection and instrumentation; Types of data sources; Types of instruments; and Data collection techniques including data verification and validation. Primary data is obtained through direct observation and direct measurement while secondary data can be obtained from reports and records. The types of instruments are: sensory data collection, physical representational, formal representation and sensory representation; records, reports and forms are examples of documentary and formal representation while sensory representation could be in a form of visual/graphic, oral/auditory and virtual.  Key considerations in data collection, verification and validation are:  (a) Objectives of data collection/utilization of the data; (b) Nature of variable and of the data; (c) Resource availability; (d) Manpower capability; (e) Socio-political conditions; (e) Instrument reliability and (f) Data validity.

basic principles deal with data_miralles_jan09.pdf1.27 MB
BasicPrinciplesNDataCollection&Instrumentation_dargantes-jan09.pdf2.74 MB