July 2010 - It may not be the most glamorous export, but selling treated sewage water is seen as a way Japan can profit from billions of tons of water now being dumped into the sea.As early as autumn, the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism will conduct an experiment exporting highly treated sewage water from Chiba and Kawasaki cities to Australia.
A World Bank report “Economic Impact of Sanitation in Southeast Asia” said that, compared to other Southeast Asian countries, Indonesia experienced the highest economic impact from its poor sanitation. The annual economic impact on health, water, the environment, human welfare and tourism is approximately US$6.3 billion in Indonesia, $1.4 billion in the Philippines, $780 million in Vietnam and $450 million in Cambodia. Indonesian loses the equivalent of Rp 265,000 per capita annually.
Without sewers, more children die, and those who survive suffer in terms of physical growth and educational attainment. Donor policies and advice on sewers are wrong in three key respects. Sewers in cities are not optional extras but essential. Sewers need to be financed by taxation not user charges. And sewers in cities are affordable for most countries, many of whom are already investing in sewers in their cities. The aid needed is concentrated in a few countries, and this is affordable for rich countries. Provides good examples of Japan PUPs in sewerage.
With a new and efficient sewerage system in place, residents in this slum area need not endure filthy surroundings any more.
Unlike his neighbours in the opposite lane, Muhammad Salam lets his children play out in the street without the slightest worry. That’s because Salam, a resident of Ghaziaba locality in the large Orangi informal settlement in this port city, is happy with the fact that there is concrete flooring along the street he lives in. Beneath this is a sewerage lane that efficiently collects wastewater from all 24 houses in the area. Mobilised by social workers from Orangi Pilot Project (OPP), a civil society organisation working in Karachi’s slum dwellings for over two decades, residents here put their heads together to deal with one of the most pressing issues facing their community – their need to do something about their own environment. OPP, having vast experience in the field, extended further help in the form of technical assistance. The result was a clean street, costing just 600 rupees (10 U.S. dollars) per household. The project was conceived and initiated in the early 1980s by Dr Akhtar Hameed Khan, a social scientist from Pakistan whose development techniques have been recognised widely around the world. He believed that if community initiatives get some support, sustainable development is possible using indigenous resources.
From 2007 to 2008 USAID facilitated a twinning partnership between Indah Water Konsortium of Malaysia (IWK) and the Urban Environmental Company (URENCO) of Halong City, Vietnam, the city's wastewater treatment plan operator. Consultations between USAID and URENCO revealed that URENCO's staff needed additional training to operate and maintain its Bai Chay centralized wastewater treatment and interceptor sewer system. IWK then developed and administered a series of trainings on treatment system optimization and preventative maintenance. At the conclusion of the partnership URENCO reported a 25% increase in contaminant removal resulting from better system optimization practices suggested by IWK. URENCO also plans to apply the O&M procedures co-developed by IWK for its second treatment plant.
USAID is facilitating a twinning partnership between Indah Water Konsortium of Malaysia (IWK) and PDAM Tirtanadi of Medan, Indonesia to support Medan to increase the number of connections to sewerage facilities by increasing demand for sanitation services (including willingness-to-pay for services) through improved customer outreach and awareness raising. IWK is working with Medan to first review and recommend any changes to their sanitation strategy and will then share its experience and expertise on promotion activities, including information campaigns and marketing. Medan will develop their promotions campaign using the 10-step ECO-Asia promotions toolkit and ensure that the campaign specifically targets the participation of women.
In 2008 USAID initiated a twinning partnership between Thailand's Wastewater Management Authority (WMA) and the King County Wastewater Treatment Division in the US State of Washington to strengthen the capacities of WMA and select local government authorities (LGAs) to better manage and sustain wastewater treatment facilities. Over the last 20 years the Royal Thai government has supported the construction of wastewater management systems in 87 locations throughout the country, but a survey in 2003 by the Ministry of Natural Resources and the Environment revealed that over 75% of these systems are in poor condition or are inoperable. During 2009 King County is currently sharing its best practices and helping develop manuals/operating procedures for operating and maintaining these facilities. WMA will in turn institutionalize the new approaches and apply them when working with future LGAs to ensure sustainable services delivery.
USAID's ECO-Asia is facilitating a twinning partnership between Wastewater Management Authority (WMA) of Thailand and King County (US) to transfer best practices and practical solutions to strengthen WMA's capacity to better manage, operate, and maintain wastewater treatment plants throughout Thailand. Funded by WMA, the WMA Board visited King County's Wastewater Treatment Division during July 28-29, 2008 and signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for a one-year twinning partnership, discussed twinning activities, and visited wastewater treatment plants to understand King County polices and practices in providing wastewater services. Through this partnership, WMA and King County will develop and institutionalize a toolkit on wastewater management and operation and maintenance in Krabi, an ASEAN Environmentally Sustainable City, and replicate lessons learned throughout Thailand.
On December 5, 2008, Indah Water Konsortium (IWK) of Malaysia and PDAM Tirtanadi of Indonesia signed a Memorandum of Understanding to engage in a one-year partnership on promoting sanitation in Medan, a city of two million people. The partnership, fostered by WaterLinks, will develop and implement sanitation promotion campaigns in Medan to help PDAM increase domestic sewerage connections. The signing ceremony was part of a two-day workshop that reviewed the Medan Master Plan for Sewerage and Sanitation and provided training.
Malaysian national sewerage company, Indah Water Konsortium Sdn Bhd (IWK), ECO Asia and PDAM Tirtanadi, Medan City water and sewerage utility firm, signed an MoU to expand sewerage services in Medan City. The tripartite MoU, inked on December 5, 2008 at the PDAM Tirtanadi office in Medan, is also to develop human capital for environmental projects in Asia. The MoU will pave the way to increase the number of premises linked to the main sewerage system in Medan which currently only numbered 11,500 or 57,500 people enjoyed the facility.
Indah Water Konsortium, a wholly-owned company of the Minister of Finance Incorporated, is Malaysia's national sewerage company which has been entrusted with the task of developing and maintaining a modern and efficient sewerage system for all Malaysians. IWK is responsible for providing sewerage services, operating and maintaining over 5,750 public sewage treatment plants and 13,000km networks of sewerage pipelines since April 1994. In 1994, the Federal Government awarded the company the concession for nationwide sewerage services which prior to that, was under the responsibility of local authorities. Since then, Indah Water has taken over the sewerage services from local authorities in all areas except the States of Kelantan, Sabah, Sarawak and the Majlis Perbandaran Johor Bahru. A modern and efficient sewerage system is vital for the country so as to ensure that wastewater is treated before being discharged into our rivers. This will help preserve the country's waste resources, protect public health and provide a cleaner and safer environment. In June 2000, as testimony of the Government's seriousness in ensuring that a proper and efficient sewerage system will be successfully put in place and maintained, the Government, through the Minister of Finance Incorporated, took over the entire equity in Indah Water from its previous private owners. Indah Water is now well-positioned to undertake the vital task of ensuring that Malaysians today and in the future will be able to enjoy a clean and healthy environment through a proper and well-maintained sewerage system.
As part of their WaterLinks twinning partnership, five staff members from the Medan water utility and Medan’s Sanitation Working Group visited Indah Water Konsortium’s (IWK) headquarters in Kuala Lumpur on February 3-5, 2009 to participate in a sanitation promotion and planning workshop. During the visit, IWK reviewed Medan’s sanitation master plan, demonstrated IWK’s sanitation public awareness program, and the two partners jointly prepared an initial sanitation promotion plan for Medan using the 10-step Water and Sanitation Promotion Toolkit developed by USAID’s Environmental-Cooperation Asia (ECO-Asia) program. Medan and the Sanitation Working Group will return to Medan and further develop the sanitation promotion campaign before a formal launching in April, 2009. USAID supports WaterLinks through its ECO-Asia program.
Singapore's Public Utilities Board advises all its customers of the imposition of Goods and Services Tax (GST) on the sanitary appliances fee and waterborne fee with effect from 1 Apr 2001. This is in compliance with the Goods and Services Tax Act. Prior to 1 Apr 2001 these fees for services provided by the Ministry of the Environment were exempted from GST and were shown as ENV services in the utilities bill. On 1 Apr 2001, the sewerage and drainage services of the Ministry of the Environment were integrated with PUB.
Singapore's Public Utilities Board (PUB) awarded the second contract (Contract C2A) for the Changi Water Reclamation Plant (CWRP) Project in Sep 01. CWRP is part of the DTSS (Deep Tunnel Sewerage System) which is PUB's long term solution to meet Singapore's needs in used water collection and reclamation through the 21st century. This contract has been awarded to M/s Econ Corporation Limited at a contract sum of $50.2 million. This contract to commence on 1 Oct 2001 and is scheduled for completion within 20 months.
Singapore's Public Utilities Board (PUB) is vested with the challenging task of maintaining the sewerage reticulation system in Singapore. The system has its origin in colonial times. The Sewerage Department of the PUB identifies older sewers, restores their condition and keeps the health of the system in the pink to serve the increasing development in Singapore. Sewer rehabilitation, the process of restoring old sewers involved large amount of excavation work in the eighties. Sewers were rectified mainly by the open trench method. The operation while necessary is time-consuming and often caused inconvenience to customers. Today, the PUB uses a number of "trenchless technologies" in sewer rehabilitation work to maintain the 3200 km of gravity sewers, 220 km of pumping mains and 130 pumping installations of the sewer reticulation system. Under ongoing sewer rehabilitation programmes, a total of 790km of sewers in various parts of Singapore will be rehabilitated.